How Parkinson’s Off Periods Impact Speech and Swallowing

Parkinson's Off Periods Dysphagia Slurred Speech

Understanding Parkinson’s Off Periods

One aspect of PD that often goes underdiscussed is the concept of Parkinson’s off periods which can significantly affect speech and swallowing. In this article, we will explore what off periods are, how they can impact communication and swallowing function, and share some strategies to help you manage during periods when your Parkinson’s medication is not at peak efficiency.

Off periods, also known as “off times” or “off states,” refer to the periods when the effects of your Parkinson’s medication begin to wear off. During these times, you might experience a range of symptoms, such as increased tremors, stiffness, slowness of movement, and reduced coordination. You may even notice a worsening of non motor symptoms such as anxiety and fatigue. These off periods can also impact your ability to speak and swallow effectively. Swallowing issues are referred to medically as dysphagia.

How Parkinson’s Off Periods Affect Speech and Swallowing

  1. Reduced Voice Volume: You might find yourself speaking even more softly during Parkinson’s off periods and notice that people are asking you to repeat yourself.
  2. Slurred Speech: Muscle rigidity and decreased coordination can make articulation more effortful resulting in an increase in slurred speech.
  3. Changes in Speech Fluency: Speech might feel slower and more effortful during off periods. Conversely, you may notice that speech becomes more rapid, cluttered and difficult to control, referred to as festinating speech.
  4. Swallowing Difficulties: During Parkinson’s off periods you may notice increased difficulty with saliva management (drooling), chewing becoming more effortful and even reduced coordination of the muscles involved in triggering a swallow, which elevates risk of choking and aspiration.

Tips for Managing Changes to Speech & Swallowing During Off Periods

  1. Know Your Schedule: Work with your healthcare provider to understand your medication schedule and when Parkinson’s off periods are most likely to occur. Try to schedule important conversations, phone calls, and meetings outside of these times to maximize your chances of successful communication.
  2. Regular Voice Exercise: Consider working with a speech therapist who specializes in Parkinson’s disease. Both direct Parkinson’s voice therapy or a Parkinson specific voice exercise program can optimize your speech, voice and swallowing so that these “off periods” are less severe and more manageable.
  3. Use Assistive Devices: If your communication is severely impacted during these off periods, there are various speech-enhancing devices and apps available that can help amplify your voice.
  4. Stay Hydrated: Drinking plenty of water can help alleviate dry mouth, making swallowing and speaking more comfortable. Be cautious when drinking during off periods. Take very small, single sips and be sure to be sitting fully upright.
  5. Eat Mindfully: Take your time to chew and swallow properly. During off periods, choose easier to swallow foods such as cream soups, pudding or soft, moist casseroles. Avoid mixed texture foods. Take very small sips of fluid. Even pills can be more difficult to swallow during off periods. Coat pills in applesauce or yogurt to help them go down more easily.
  6. Being Kind to Yourself: While it’s essential to be aware of how off periods can affect your speech and swallowing, it’s equally important to be kind to yourself during these moments. Remember that everyone with Parkinson’s experiences these off periods.

Parkinson’s off periods can certainly exacerbate speech and swallowing issues. However, by understanding when they are most likely to occur and making appropriate adjustments, doing regular Parkinson specific voice exercises, and being kind to yourself, you can successfully navigate these challenging periods of the day.

Consult an Expert

As always, if you are experiencing significant swallowing difficulty, especially during Parkinson off periods, consult directly with a local speech language pathologist to schedule a clinical swallowing assessment.

Difficulty Swallowing: Dysphagia in Parkinson’s Disease

dysphagia Parkinson's trouble swallowing drooling

Difficulty Swallowing: Dysphagia in Parkinson’s Disease

Difficulty swallowing, referred to medically as dysphagia is a common symptom of Parkinson’s disease, particularly in the later stages of the disease. Swallowing is one of those bodily processes that we often don’t give a second thought to… until it becomes a problem.

The Role of the SLP in Managing Difficulty Swallowing

A speech language pathologist (SLP) is trained to evaluate and manage both difficulty swallowing and all manners of communication impairment in a variety of conditions, including Parkinson’s disease. Dysphagia became under the purview of SLPs because the process of swallowing involves much of the same anatomy and physiology involved in speaking.

Speech pathologists have specialized training in head and neck anatomy and physiology. They also study voice, articulation, respiration, resonance and motor speech. Most SLPs who work with adults have extensive training in dysphagia and complete clinical practicums to manage all manners of swallowing disorders.

Why does swallowing difficulty occur in Parkinson’s?

Along with the hallmark feature of difficulty initiating movement, Parkinson’s is known for making movements smaller. It’s often referred to as the disease of low amplitude. We often think of these smaller movements as they refer to gross motor movements such as having a smaller shuffling gait pattern or reduced arm swing when walking.

With respect to swallowing function: jaw, lip, tongue and throat movements can become reduced in range resulting in difficulty chewing food, controlling liquid in the mouth and triggering a strong, timely swallow.

Impact on Communication

Now think of it in terms of communication. Vocal projection becomes reduced resulting in a soft, difficult to hear voice. Articulation and facial movements become reduced resulting in less precise speech and masked facial expression. Even intonation and prosody in the voice can be affected, resulting in flat, monotone sounding speech.

Disuse Atrophy: You Don’t Use It, You Lose It

But it’s not simply an issue of direct muscle weakness, for example like what may occur in a stroke. There is a two-fold effect happening. The dopamine deficiency in Parkinson’s disease results in a perceptual impairment, a “faulty feedback loop” if you will. Your brain gives you incorrect information about the SIZE of the movements you are making.

You may think that you are speaking loudly or smiling widely because your brain tells you that you have put sufficient effort into these movements. But this is often false information! Your voice may in fact be too quiet and your smile minimal. Because of this perceptual issue, you don’t adjust the movement to make it bigger.

And as the old saying goes… if you don’t use it, you lose it. Over time, reduced movement and range results in further weakening of those muscles and systems.

The Three Phases of the Swallow

It’s also important to know that there are three distinct phases of the swallow. Any or all of these swallowing phases can be impacted in Parkinson’s disease.

The Mouth Phase

During the mouth or oral phase of the swallow, food or liquid must be prepared, controlled and transferred to the back of the mouth. This part of the swallow is completely under your volitional control. For example you can choose to hold a sip of water in your mouth for several seconds or chew a tough piece of steak extensively before swallowing, if needed. Many people with Parkinson’s find thin liquids and mixed texture foods particularly challenging due to the increased challenge of controlling these textures in the mouth.

The Throat Phase

The second phase of the swallow is the throat or pharyngeal phase of the swallow. This is where the brain takes over and completes a complex set of movements to safely transport the food or liquid into the food tube. An important part of the pharyngeal phase is ensuring that the airway is sufficiently closed to prevent food or liquid from “going down the wrong pipe”. When something goes down the wrong way it’s called aspiration. Aspiration events can lead to aspiration pneumonia which can be deadly if left untreated.

The Food Tube Phase

The third phase of the swallow is the food tube or esophageal phase where the food is transported to the stomach. Speech pathologists primarily manage difficulty swallowing only in the first two phases of the swallow as this last phase is largely treated and managed with medication and/or surgical intervention.

Common Swallowing Difficulties in Parkinson’s Disease

So what are some of the typical swallowing difficulties that can occur with Parkinson’s disease?

  1. Spillage of food/liquid from the lips or prematurely into the throat due to difficulty with mouth control
  2. Trouble initiating the transfer of food from the front to the back of the mouth
  3. Trouble triggering a timely throat (pharyngeal) phase of the swallow
  4. Reduced range of movement of the throat’s laryngeal structure resulting in reduced closure of the airway during the swallow
  5. Food residue in the throat after the swallow (especially with dense food like bread or a thick pudding)
  6. Reduced sensation of food/liquid entering the airway (aspiration!) resulting in an absent or ineffective cough response to clear
  7. Difficulty swallowing pills

Increased Risk of Aspiration Pneumonia

People with Parkinson’s disease have a higher risk of silent aspiration (not sensing/responding to things going down the wrong way) which puts them at a significantly higher risk of developing aspiration type pneumonia. There are ways to significantly reduce your risk of developing aspiration pneumonia in Parkinson’s disease, including ensuring that you have a thorough oral care routine.

If you have Parkinson’s disease and have started to experiencing difficulty swallowing, it’s essential to seek out a clinical swallowing assessment with a trained speech language pathologist near you.